Superclass:  Path Loss

The path_loss_two_slope object represents a two-slope path loss model.

The path loss under a two-slope path loss model can be described entirely by five parameters:

1. the distance of the path $d$
2. the reference distance $d_0$
3. the path loss at the reference distance $L_0$
4. the path loss exponent within the reference distance $\eta_1$
5. the path loss exponent beyond the reference distance $\eta_2$

The path loss (or attenuation) stemming from a free-space path loss model can be deterministically written as

where $G^2$ is the path gain and $1/G^2$ is the path loss.

The path_loss_two_slope object is a subclass of the path_loss object.

Creating a Two-Slope Path Loss Object

A two-slope path loss object path_loss_two_slope can be created via

p = path_loss.create('two-slope')


Key Properties

The path_loss_two_slope object inherits all properties of the path_loss object, the key ones being

p.attenuation
p.carrier_frequency
p.carrier_wavelength
p.propagation_velocity
p.distance


In addition to these, the path_loss_two_slope object also has the property

p.path_loss_exponents


to capture the path loss exponents $\eta_1$ and $\eta_2$ and

p.reference_distance
p.reference_path_loss


to capture the reference distance $d_0$ and reference path loss $L_0$, respectively.

Setting the Path Loss Exponents

To set the path loss exponents of a two-slope path loss object p, use

p.set_path_loss_exponents(ple_1,ple_2)


where ple_1 and ple_2 are the path loss exponents $\eta_1$ and $\eta_2$.

Example Setup

A typical path_loss_two_slope object setup looks something similar to

p = path_loss.create('two-slope')
p.set_carrier_frequency(fc)
p.set_propagation_velocity(vel)
p.set_distance(d)
p.set_path_loss_exponents(ple_1,ple_2)
p.set_reference_distance(d0)
p.set_reference_path_loss(L0,'dB')


Invoking a Realization

To realize the path loss, use

atten = p.realization()


which, when appropriately setup, will return the attenuation atten for the given carrier wavelength, distance, and path loss exponent.

Note that atten is related to the large-scale gain $G$ by simply atten $= G^{-2}$.

Getting the Attenuation

To get the realized attenuation of a path_loss_free_space object p, one can also use

atten = p.get_attenuation()


where atten is the attenuation of the path loss (power loss, linear scale).

List of Properties

The path_loss_two_slope object contains the following properties:

• path_loss_two_slope.reference_distance
• path_loss_two_slope.reference_path_loss
• path_loss_two_slope.path_loss_exponents
• path_loss_two_slope.name
• path_loss_two_slope.type
• path_loss_two_slope.distance
• path_loss_two_slope.attenuation
• path_loss_two_slope.carrier_frequency
• path_loss_two_slope.carrier_wavelength
• path_loss_two_slope.propagation_velocity

List of Methods

The path_loss_two_slope object contains the following methods:

Methods Documentation

compute_path_loss_attenuation(d)

Computes the path attenuation (path loss) according to the free-space path loss (FSPL) formula.

Usage:
atten = compute_path_loss_attenuation()
atten = compute_path_loss_attenuation(d)
Input Arguments:
d — (optional) distance(s) in meters to evaluate the path loss at; if not passed, the path loss object’s distance property will be used
Return Values:
atten — the path attenuation (path loss) (a power loss)
Notes:
The path loss equation used is

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create(type)

Creates a path loss object of a specific type.

Usage:
obj = path_loss.create()
obj = path_loss.create(type)
Input Arguments:
type — (optional) a string specifying which path loss model to create
Return Values:
obj — a path loss object

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get_attenuation()

Returns the realized attenuation of the path loss model.

Usage:
val = get_attenuation()
Return Values:
val — the attenuation (power loss) of the path

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initialize()

Initializes a path loss object.

Usage:
initialize()

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initialize_free_space()

Initializes a two-slope path loss object.

Usage:
INITIALIZE_TWO_SLOPE()

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path_loss_two_slope(name)

Creates a two-slope path loss object.

Usage:
obj = path_loss_two_slope()
obj = path_loss_two_slope(name)
Input Arguments:
name — an optional name for the object
Return Values:
obj — an object representing two-slope path loss

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realization()

Invokes a realization of the path loss.

Usage:
atten = realization()
Return Values:
atten — the realized path loss attenuation
Notes:
Since no random variables are involved in the FSPL equation, it will be determininstic and thus fixed across realizations.

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set_carrier_frequency(fc)

Sets the carrier frequency of the channel. Also updates the carrier wavelength accordingly.

Usage:
set_carrier_frequency(fc)
Input Arguments:
fc — carrier frequency (Hz)
Notes:

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set_distance(d)

Sets the distance of the path (in meters).

Usage:
set_distance(d) Sets the distance of the link to a specific
value.
Input Arguments:
d — distance of the path (in meters)

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set_name(name)

Sets the name of the path loss model.

Usage:
set_name()
set_name(name)
Input Arguments:
name — (optional) a string; if not passed, ‘path-loss’ is the default name used

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set_path_loss_attenuation(atten)

Sets the attenuation of the path loss model.

Usage:
set_path_loss_attenuation(atten)
Input Arguments:
atten — the attenuation (power loss) of the path

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set_path_loss_exponents(ple_1,ple_2)

Sets the two path loss exponents.

Usage:
set_path_loss_exponents(ple_1,ple_2)
Input Arguments:
ple_1 — path loss exponent for distances within the reference distance
ple_2 — path loss exponent for distances beyond the reference distance

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set_propagation_velocity(val)

Sets the propagation velocity of the channel. Also updates the carrier wavelength accordingly.

Usage:
set_propagation_velocity(val)
Input Arguments:
val — propagation velocity (meters/sec)

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set_reference_distance(d0)

Sets the reference distance.

Usage:
set_reference_distance(d0)
Input Arguments:
d0 — the reference distance at which the path loss exponent changes from one path loss exponent to another

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set_reference_path_loss(L0,unit)

Sets the reference path loss.

Usage:
set_reference_path_loss(d0)
set_reference_path_loss(d0,unit)
Input Arguments:
L0 — the path loss (linear power loss) measured at the reference distance
unit — (optional) a string specifying the unit of L0

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set_type(type)

Sets the type of path loss model.

Usage:
set_type()
set_type(type)
Input Arguments:
type — (optional) a string; if not passed, ‘default’ is the default type used

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